Amphibians are increasingly being used as bio-indicator of contamination in ecosystems due to their sensitivity to xenobiotics in the environment. Cadmium and lead compounds, ubiquitous mutagens and carcinogens, are capable of eliciting genome instability in adult toads which may enhance amphibian decline. Micronucleus cytome (MN-cyt) assay, a comprehensive cytogenetic test for the assessment of genome instability induced by xenobiotics in organisms, was utilized in the differential cytogenotoxic evaluation of Cd and Pb in adultAmietophrynus regularis. A.regularis was exposed to six concentrations (8 – 512 mg/L) of the metal solutions to determine 96 h acute toxicity. Four toads per group were exposed to five sub-lethal concentrations (5 – 75 %) of the 96 h LC50 of the metals for 14 days. At post exposure, bone marrow and peripheral erythrocytes were collected for MN-cyt analysis. The metals induced differential concentration and time-dependent increase in mortality with 96 h LC50of 36.36 mg/L (Cd) and 112.06 mg/L (Pb). No observable effective concentrations (NOEC); Cd=8 and Pb=32 (mg/L) and Lowest observable effective concentrations (LOEC); Cd=16 and Pb=64 (mg/L) were recorded for the metals. Derived toxicity factor (TF) showed that Cd was 3.08 times more toxic to the toads than Pb. The metal solutions induced significant (p<0.05) increase in frequencies of MN, binucleated, nuclear bud, notch, lobe, vacuolated erythrocytes, apoptosis and necrosis compared to the negative control. Cd elicited 1.42 and 3.26 folds increase in MN and NAs respectively, than Pb. MN-cyt assay is a suitable cytogenetic tool for assessing genome instability in A. regularis. Increased genetic instability induced by Cd and Pb may be associated with genetic related syndromes; neoplasms, reproductive dysfunctions and mortality. This suggests threat to amphibian health and may enhance population decline.
Micronucleus cytome assay in the differential assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium and lead inAmietophrynus regularis
C.G. Alimba, A.M. Aladeyelu, […], and A.A. Bakare
Categories: Research development